Biosolids Infusion Unit

What happens after you flush the toilet shouldn't be a subject of taboo. It is a topic that should be infused into every classroom subject ranging from science to social studies to the visual arts and even theater, as it affects everyone. In Florida, the "wastes" that travel down a toilet and are recovered at a treatment facility are called residuals, biosolids, and/or sludge.

But this isn't a book about waste management. It's a curriculum infusion designed for teachers and informal educators (grades 6+) about recovering renewable resources from wastes while promoting environmental sustainability. It's an educational resource packed with fourteen activities to introduce students to some of the topics and issues faced everyday by the biosolids industry. These topics include public relations, regulatory compliance, wastewater treatment operations, emerging contaminants from household products and so much more!

This is a book about inspiration and how nature inspires us every day. Through natural processes, the environment recycles wastes, but we've only begun to understand how to use science to engineer these processes to meet growing populations! As a society, we still have a long way to go, so this book is a good starting point for an honest but not-so-taboo topic.

To download a copy, click on the links below. The full book is 34 MB in size and may take a few minutes to download on wifi and/or mobile devices.

Residuals. Biosolids. Sludge. (PDF) Part I (18 MB)

Residuals. Biosolids. Sludge. (PDF). Part 2 (16 MB)

This project was created by the FWEA Public Communications and Outreach Committee (PCOC). It was the original work of FDEP's Phil Kane, Ed.D, and was first published in 2005. Updated in 2021, the second edition includes new lesson plans, an expanded teacher background section, and glossary. The PCOC thanks its many contributors and reviewers for helping us create this curricula. For questions, please contact Shea Dunifon at or Phil Kane at